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Regional Disparities in Education

MASUM BILLAH

Regional disparities in education have evinced this year’s Education Watch report as a key factor lying in the educational arena of our country. They targeted Sylhet division which is characterized by affluence and poverty, plain land and haor, tea estates and sophisticated urbanity. Very interesting pictures have come out through the research and recommendations made by the organization will provide ample food for thought for the policy makers in the field of education of our country.

Both in the primary and secondary levels the enrolment in Sylhet proves much lower than the national average. They stand 80.5% at primary and 64.2% in the secondary level whereas the national figures show 86.4% and 77.7% respectively. In terms of literacy rate also it lags far behind the national average. The literacy rate for 7+ populations is 40.7% and for adult population it is 44.4% but the national rates are 48.5% and 52.1% respectively. It was also found that there 30.8% households which don’t see any literate person but this figure for the whole Bangladesh stands as 11.5%. These figures at the basic levels of education call for a serious concern for the national policy makers.

Sylhet Division from WikipediaEconomic deprivation and social inequalities arising from their geographical isolation keep their children away from school and education. Although the overall economic situation is better than the rest of Bangladesh, there is a likelihood that due to the geographical reasons the inequality in income distribution gets worse in Sylhet. Compared to 38.5% overall in Sylhet division, more than half of the haor communities (54% under study) had only kancha road. The head teachers reported that over a fifth of the students had to face bad transportation during dry season which doubled in the wet season. The situation proves worse in rural Sunamgonj and in the haor areas. The practice of child labour stands as a major reason  for  drooping out from schools.

Generally children of these areas start going to school late compared to other parts of the country, they also drop out earlier than others. The age-specific enrolment rates in Sylhet   are lower for all ages compared to the national averages.   65% of children of age six are enrolled in schools in other parts of the country on an average but it is   52% in Sylhet division. Many parents are not aware at all about age of admission to school .By the age of 15 years  half of the children of the plane   lands, 60% of those of haro areas  and 73% of those in the tea estates/ hills/ forests are out of school. The comparative national figure is less than 40%. A portion of the parents are unable to bear the cost of education and other children engaged in income earning activities too early. Poor teaching leaning provisions and lack of care in schools are also important reasons  for leaving school which the study unveils.

Per capita availability of primary level educational institution in Sylhet is not less  if we compare it with other parts of the country but it Is not the case for secondary education. Against, 6.$% of the student population at both the levels, Sylhet  contains  7.8% of the primary level institutions and 3.9% of the secondary level institution clearly showing inadequacy of secondary education provision  in Sylhet and it  indicates lower institutional investment in education. Like other parts of the country primary educational institutions  of this region lack electricity  and drinking water facilities, cleanliness  of walls and floors and good quality blackboards. Though they show similar pictures comparing to other parts, these pictures show rather depressing in the region.

Shortage of teachers in both the levels is also lower than average number of teachers  of the country. The average number of teachers in the primary schools of this region is 4.4 and   12.8 in the secondary schools. These figures at the national level are 5.1 and 14.3 respectively.  In terms of teachers’ qualification and training hardly any variation is available.  But it is mentionable a quarter of the rural school teachers live in urban areas.  This is because of financial solvency and no good living place available adjacent to school like other parts of the country.

Absenteeism and late arrival in an early departure from school all are significantly higher among the school teachers in Sylhet area. The average loss of time for this is 56mintue per day for primary teachers and 48 minutes for secondary teachers. Primary school teachers in the haor areas and in Sungamjong district are  least punctual . Their average loss of time per day is 76 minutes for haor teachers and 80 minutes for Sunamgonj  teachers. Thus good amount of contact hours is lost contributing to ineffective  classroom teaching , incomplete lesson , producing poor quality students and creating negative idea about education of the people of these backward areas. The uapzilla education officials are also less proactive in addressing the key issues of school operation. Some educational institutions are  not visited at all throughout a year or visited once or twice which is really  inadequate. It was found in the study that 72.5% of the primary schools did not see any visitor in   2009. Per capita availability was not less for primary schools in Sylhet but  it is significantly  less for secondary schools, compared to the rest of the country . Sylhet sees 6.4% of the school aged children but it has only 3.9% of the secondary educational institutions. The study of Education Watch discovered that that 42% of the villages don’t have any   primary schools at all. When our education policy gives much emphasis on education and promises uniform education, it is really a matter of serious concern for all of us. The above description of Sylhet region clearly shows a paradoxical situation: a relatively good economic condition but worsening social indicators.  There must be a good coordination a good coordination between them to promise a uniform education and development of this region.

Education Watch has made a series of recommendations putting emphasis on strong political commitment accompanied with pragmatic strategies to minimize the disparities of education lying in Sylhet region. They consider that the broad geographical diversity of Sylhet division and variations within, a general principle of educational development strategy will not fit for the whole region. Recognizing the fact and the principle of equality mentioned in the Education Policy of 2010 it is important to flag on decentralized education planning and implementation. Children of haor areas are at risk of not attending schools due to unique geographical reality there, which has different effects in dry and wet seasons. Considering the mode and strength of water flow during wet season new roads can be constructed wherever possible and existing roads can be reconstructed. Special water bus services for the students and teachers can be introduced specifically during the wet seasons in haor areas.  The government and NGO activities should be expanded in the haor areas and tea estates. To address the issue of drop out stipend program should be extended and ‘school feeding’ program may encourage the parents to send their children to school. It is important to appoint more education officials in all upazillas of Sylhet division especially in the remote and hard to reach upazilas. Each of them should be given the responsibility to look after a small number of schools so that they can give due attention to each school. Part time teachers should be engaged along with more regular teachers and teachers should be given incentives /hardship allowances so that they become interested to work in these backward areas. For raising awareness among the vulnerable guardians, regular parent-teacher meeting can be arranged.

A mechanism can be found out to encourage the non-resident Bangladeshis to contribute more for educational development of Sylhet. Space should be created so that a collective initiative can be taken. The government can initiate creating a special education fund for Sylhet division in which both the government and the NRBs can contribute. To uphold the prestige of gender parity in student participation and teacher’s recruitment must be given a meaningful glance. Rasheda K. Choudhury, Executive Director, CAMPE rightly says, “Strong political commitment accompanied with pragmatic strategies, sufficient resources and continuous monitoring will be required to prepare our next generation particularly the disadvantaged to contribute to nation building activities and enable them to perform well in future in the era of globalization and competitive, market oriented human resource development all over the world. However, we believe that providing basic education is a state responsibility and all development actors like the government, political parties, and CSO and development partners must come forward to play their role in national development. “

Writer: Program Manager: BRAC Education Program and Vice-President: Bangladesh English Language Teachers’ Association (BELTA), Formerly professor of English Ghatail Cantonment College, Sylhet , Comilla and Mirzapur Cadet College and Rajuk Uttara Model College, Bangladesh.

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